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 Harris lost the manuscript, of which there was no other copy. It also recommended that Latter Day Saints avoid "strong" alcoholic drinks, tobacco, and "hot drinks" (later interpreted to mean tea and coffee). Joseph Smith Jr. (December 23, 1805 – June 27, 1844) was an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement. , After Smith's death, Emma Smith quickly became alienated from Brigham Young and the church leadership.  After armed bands exchanged fire, killing one Mormon and two non-Mormons, the old settlers brutally expelled the Mormons from the county. , Smith made his last visit to the hill on September 22, 1827, taking Emma with him. Joseph Smith was born on December 23, 1805 in Sharon, Vermont.  Cowdery was also assigned the task of locating the site of the New Jerusalem.  (Rockwell was later tried and acquitted.) Smith's followers view it as a companion to the Bible and an additional witness of Christ, akin to a large apocryphal work. , Smith declared that he would be one of the instruments in fulfilling Nebuchadnezzar's statue vision in the Book of Daniel: that secular government would be destroyed without "sword or gun", and would be replaced with a "theodemocratic" Kingdom of God.  Fearing an invasion of Nauvoo, Smith rode to Carthage, Illinois, to stand trial, but was killed when a mob stormed the jailhouse. 1833 Age 27.  The endowment was extended to women in 1843, though Smith never clarified whether women could be ordained to priesthood offices. harvtxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBrodie1971 (, harvtxt error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFNewellAvery1994 (. The book ends with Moroni's exhortation to "come unto Christ".  In July 1843, Smith dictated a revelation directing Emma to accept plural marriage, but the two were not reconciled until September 1843, after Emma began participating in temple ceremonies. “[We] love and revere him as a prophet of God, and call his name blessed.” –Monument Inscription. When other settlers found their presence intolerable, the Saints were forced to move to other counties in the state. , Although Smith had left his treasure hunting company, his former associates believed he had double crossed them and taken the golden plates for himself, which they believed should be joint property. Joseph Smith (1805-1844) ... Smith was born in 1805 in Sharon, Vermont, into a hard-pressed farm family that eventually included ten children.  Three months later, Smith gave a lengthy revelation called the "Olive Leaf" containing themes of cosmology and eschatology, and discussing subjects such as light, truth, intelligence, and sanctification; a related revelation given in 1833 put Christ at the center of salvation. If he thought he could divine treasure with a seer stone, he was self-deluded; if it was knowingly deceiving people, he was a con man. In a church-wide conference on August 8, most of the Latter Day Saints elected Young, who led them to the Salt Lake Valley as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Joseph Smith Jr. was born on December 23, 1805, to Lucy Mack Smith and Joseph Smith Sr. At the time, the Smiths lived in a small home on a farm owned by Lucy’s father, Solomon Mack. Soon after, on April 6, 1830, Smith and his followers formally organized the Church of Christ, and small branches were established in Palmyra, Fayette, and Colesville, New York. , In Jackson County, existing Missouri residents resented the Mormon newcomers for both political and religious reasons. , Smith gave varying types of revelations. As of 2013[update], members of the denominations originating from Smith's teachings number approximately 16.3 million.  In the summer of 1842, Smith revealed a plan to establish the millennial Kingdom of God, which would eventually establish theocratic rule over the whole Earth. Carthage, Illinois, United States. After an ill-fated business venture and three successive years of crop failures culminating in the 1816 Year Without a Summer, the Smith family left Vermont and moved to western New York, taking out a mortgage on a 10… He was martyred on June 27, 1844. , Smith ended the communitarian experiment and changed the name of the church to the "Church of Latter Day Saints," before leading a small paramilitary expedition called Zion's Camp, to aid the Missouri Mormons. The work and glory of God, then, was to create worlds across the cosmos where inferior intelligences could be embodied.  Family members supplemented their meager farm income by hiring out for odd jobs and working as treasure seekers, a type of magical supernaturalism common during the period. The Nephites become a righteous people who build a temple and live the law of Moses, though their prophets teach a Christian gospel.  Rigdon soon visited New York and quickly became Smith's primary assistant.  At first, Smith's church had little sense of hierarchy; his religious authority was derived from visions and revelations. , The two strongest succession candidates were Brigham Young, senior member and president of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, and Sidney Rigdon, the senior member of the First Presidency. Smith was born in Sharon, Vermont.  The language of authority in Smith's revelations was appealing to converts, and the revelations were given with the confidence of an Old Testament prophet. Understanding that he was effectively on trial before his own people, many of whom considered him a fallen prophet, he wrote a personal defense and an apology for the activities of the Danites.  These teachings implied a vast hierarchy of gods, with God himself having a father. Smith fled Kirtland for Far West, Missouri, in 1838, but opposition arose once more. , On their way to Missouri, Cowdery's party passed through northeastern Ohio, where Sidney Rigdon and over a hundred followers of his variety of Campbellite Restorationism converted to Mormonism, more than doubling the size of the church.  Tension increased until July 1833, when non-Mormons forcibly evicted the Mormons and destroyed their property. “I was called of my Heavenly Father to lay the foundation of this great work and kingdom in this dispensation, and testify of His revealed will to scattered Israel.” When the twins died, the Smiths adopted another set of twins, Julia and Joseph, whose mother had recently died in childbirth; Joseph died of measles in 1832.  Between 1817 and 1825, there were several camp meetings and revivals in the Palmyra area. Joseph Smith Jr. was born 23 December 1805 in Sharon, Vermont, to Joseph and Lucy Mack Smith. Smith found the plates buried in a stone box not far from his father’s farm.  At first, the endowment was open only to men, who were initiated into a special group called the Anointed Quorum.  Conversely, within Mormonism, Smith was remembered first and foremost as a prophet, martyred to seal the testimony of his faith. Harris also took a sample of the characters to a few prominent scholars, including Charles Anthon. Some were received for a specific individual, while others were directed at the whole church.  Young, whom Emma feared and despised, was suspicious of her desire to preserve the family's assets from inclusion with those of the church, and thought she would be even more troublesome because she openly opposed plural marriage. 1 On December 23, 1805, Lucy Mack Smith delivered a son named after his father, Joseph Smith. Smith's revelations often came in response to specific questions. The first revelations Joseph Smith Joseph Smith ©. According to the book itself, one of the prophets, a general named Mormon, abridged and assembled the records of his people, engraving the history on gold plates.  In 1826, Smith was brought before a Chenango County court for "glass-looking", or pretending to find lost treasure. Harris persuaded Smith to let him take the existing 116 pages of manuscript to Palmyra to show a few family members, including his wife. During this period, Smith briefly attended Methodist meetings with his wife, until a cousin of hers objected to inclusion of a "practicing necromancer" on the Methodist class roll.  In Smith's cosmology, those who became gods would reign, unified in purpose and will, leading spirits of lesser capacity to share immortality and eternal life. He died in February 1974 at 47 years old. The eldest, Alvin (born in 1828), died within hours of birth, as did twins Thaddeus and Louisa (born in 1831). She remained faithful to him to the end, however, and after his death wore a lock of his hair on her person.  Nevertheless, spirits could not experience a "fullness of joy" unless joined with corporeal bodies, according to Smith.  He taught that the Church of Christ restored through him was a latter-day restoration of the early Christian faith, which had been lost in the Great Apostasy. He died in August 1957 at 38 years old. Murder by Stabbing.  In March 1836, at the temple's dedication, many participants in the endowment reported seeing visions of angels, speaking in tongues, and prophesying. , Smith's months in prison with an ill and whining Rigdon strained their relationship. The book resembled the Bible in its length and complexity and in its division into books named for individual prophets.  In fact Smith's first recorded revelation was a rebuke chastising Smith for having let Martin Harris lose 116 pages of Book of Mormon manuscript.  On June 23, Smith and his brother Hyrum rode to Carthage to stand trial for inciting a riot.  This first vision would later grow in importance to Smith's followers, who now regard it as the first event in the restoration of Christ's church to Earth. They unleashed a flood of anti-Mormon rhetoric in newspapers and in stump speeches given during the 1838 election campaign.  Smith and Emma eloped and married on January 18, 1827, after which the couple began boarding with Smith's parents in Manchester. January 22–23 Kirtland: Joseph organizes the School of the Prophets (see Doctrine and Covenants 88:70–80, 117–141). He was martyred on June 27, 1844.  Though it is unclear how much Smith knew of the Danites' activities, he clearly approved of those of which he did know.  The Council of Fifty had a theoretical claim to succession, but it was a secret organization. Smith’s teachings departed from conventional Christian traditions by incorporating certain practices from the Hebrew Bible (see also Old Testament). , The Book of Moses begins with Moses' asking God about the purpose of creation. When questions arose, he would call upon God and dictate words in the voice of the Lord. , Destruction of the newspaper provoked a strident call to arms from Thomas C. Sharp, editor of the Warsaw Signal and longtime critic of Smith.  Initially he opposed it, but during the mid-1830s when the Mormons were settling in Missouri (a slave state), Smith cautiously justified slavery in an anti-abolitionist essay. In probable reference to this period of flight, Smith said that Peter, James, and John had appeared to him and had ordained him and Cowdery to a higher priesthood. Their devotion to each other was sorely tried by the practice of polygamy. He disfavored imprisonment of convicts except for murder, preferring efforts to reform criminals through labor; he also opposed courts-martial for military deserters. Rigdon's followers had also been practicing a form of communalism, which Smith adopted, calling it the United Order. In 1842, Emma gave birth to a stillborn son.  In 1833, Smith edited and expanded many of the previous revelations, publishing them as the Book of Commandments, which later became part of the Doctrine and Covenants. Because his family could not afford the luxury of public education, Joseph received only three years of … " Smith said he recounted the experience to a preacher, who dismissed the story with contempt.  Building the temple had left the church deeply in debt, and Smith was hounded by creditors. In answer to his question about which was the right church, they told him that all the churches were wrong. , Smith bore his imprisonment stoically. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. , Smith also attracted a few wealthy and influential converts, including John C. Bennett, the Illinois quartermaster general. A fifty-foot monument rises up in the Vermont countryside today, just a few steps from the original site of the roughly 800-square-foot farmhouse where Joseph Smith Jr. was born. After receiving noncommittal or negative responses, Smith announced his own independent candidacy for President of the United States, suspended regular proselytizing, and sent out the Quorum of the Twelve and hundreds of other political missionaries. He died on November 24, 1996 at 77 years of age. In retaliation, Bennett left Smith's following and wrote "lurid exposés of life in Nauvoo".  Smith also attempted to portray the Latter Day Saints as an oppressed minority, and unsuccessfully petitioned the federal government for help in obtaining reparations. , Smith said that in June 1830, he received a "revelation of Moses" in which Moses saw "the world and the ends thereof" and asked God questions about the purpose of creation and man's relationship to God.  Once the Smiths were in custody, the charges were increased to treason, preventing them from posting bail. This revelation initiated a revision of the Bible on which Smith worked sporadically until 1833 and which remained unpublished at his death. , Many American newspapers criticized Missouri for the Haun's Mill massacre and the state's expulsion of the Latter Day Saints.  In the weeks and months after Smith and Rigdon arrived at Far West, thousands of Latter Day Saints followed them from Kirtland. He believed that every man could be a priest and that everyone had in him the possibility of the divine. Joseph Smith Jr. Four years later, the angel permitted him to remove the plates and instructed him to translate the characters engraved on their surfaces with the aid of special stones called “interpreters.” Smith insisted that he did not compose the book but merely “translated” it under divine guidance.  Each priesthood was a continuation of biblical priesthoods through patrilineal succession or ordination by biblical figures appearing in visions.  Smith taught that this kingdom would be governed by theocratic principles, but that it would also be multidenominational and democratic, so long as the people chose wisely.  Nevertheless, Zion's Camp transformed Mormon leadership, and many future church leaders came from among the participants. Smith was born on December 23, 1805 in Sharon, Vermont to Lucy Mack Smith and her husband Joseph Smith Sr., a merchant and farmer. Meanwhile, non-Mormon hostility in the surrounding county had been growing for the usual reasons, and, when the press was closed, irate local citizens brought charges of promoting riot against Smith and his brother Hyrum. In the narrative, Enoch speaks with God, receives a prophetic calling, and eventually builds a city of Zion so righteous that it was taken to heaven.  Smith's brother Hyrum, had he survived, would have had the strongest claim, followed by Smith's brother Samuel, who died mysteriously a month after his brothers.  Smith was buried in Nauvoo, and is interred there at the Smith Family Cemetery. , The early Nauvoo years were a period of doctrinal innovation. He appointed his male followers to priesthoods, named for the biblical figures Melchizedek and Aaron, that were overseen by the office of high priest. , the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, This article is about the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. Members of the church were later called "Latter Day Saints" or "Mormons", and Smith announced a revelation in 1838 which renamed the church as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Joseph Smith was born on February 27, 1952. By 1838, Smith had abandoned plans to redeem Zion in Jackson County, and after Smith and Rigdon arrived in Missouri, the town of Far West became the new "Zion". For women, Smith introduced the Relief Society, a service club and sorority within which Smith predicted women would receive "the keys of the kingdom". , The first of Smith's wives, Emma Hale, gave birth to nine children during their marriage, five of whom died before the age of two. " He believed a strong central government was crucial to the nation's well-being, and thought democracy better than tyranny—although he also taught that a theocratic monarchy was the ideal form of government. Later, about 400 ce, the record keepers, known as Nephites, were wiped out by their enemies, the Lamanites, presumably the ancestors of the American Indians. It tells the story of the rise and fall of a religious civilization beginning about 600 BC and ending in 421 AD. “[He] left a fame and name that cannot be slain. , In 1841, Smith began revealing the doctrine of plural marriage to a few of his closest male associates, including Bennett, who used it as an excuse to seduce numerous women wed and unwed. Gouverneur Morris Professor Emeritus of History, Columbia University.  After they ransacked places where they believed the plates could be hidden, Smith decided to leave Palmyra. Dan Vogel, another historian, says that the work is autobiographical in nature. When dissenters published a reform newspaper in Nauvoo that Smith felt disturbed the peace, he ordered it suppressed. For at least some of the earliest dictation, Smith is said to have used the "Urim and Thummim", a pair of seer stones he said were buried with the plates. Joseph Smith Jr. was born on December 23, 1805. Joseph Smith 1805-1844 Born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, to Joseph and Lucy Mack Smith, Joseph Smith Jr. grew up on a series of tenant farms in Vermont, New Hampshire, and New York. The wild enthusiasm and the many denominations present confused Smith and he was uncertain of what to believe and how to worship. Joseph and Emma had four sons who lived to maturity: Joseph Smith III, Frederick Granger Williams Smith, Alexander Hale Smith, and David Hyrum Smith. When he was a child his family moved to Palmyra in western New York where there was a lot of revivalism and religious fervor due to the Second Great Awakening. For instance, in the early 1830s, he temporarily instituted a form of religious communism, called the United Order, that required Latter Day Saints to give all their property to the church, which was divided among the faithful. The collapse of the church-sponsored Kirtland Safety Society Anti-Banking Company and violent skirmishes with non-Mormon Missourians caused Smith and his followers to establish a new settlement at Nauvoo, Illinois, where he became a spiritual and political leader. The completed work, titled the Book of Mormon, was published in Palmyra on March 26, 1830, by printer E. B. Grandin. John A. Wilson, "The Joseph Smith Egyptian Papyri: Translations and Interpretations, harvtxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSmith1994 (, harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFHarris2015 (.  Revelations were immediately copied, and then circulated among church members. Memorials to Smith include the Joseph Smith Memorial Building in Salt Lake City, Utah, the Joseph Smith Building on the campus of Brigham Young University, and a granite obelisk marking his birth place. Rigdon said that "if the salt have lost its savor, wherewith shall it be salted? He was one of 11 children.  In March 1844 — following a dispute with a federal bureaucrat — Smith organized the secret Council of Fifty.  Smith was then sent to a state court for a preliminary hearing, where several of his former allies testified against him. When the farm failed, Joseph Senior moved the family to Palmyra, New York, hoping to do better. (Ref: Murdock, Autobiography, 4; “History of Joseph Smith,” Times and Seasons, 15 Aug. 1844, 5:611).  Matter, in Smith's view, could neither be created nor destroyed; the creation involved only the reorganization of existing matter.  Many members of these smaller groups, including most of Smith's family, eventually coalesced in 1860 under the leadership of Joseph Smith III and formed what was known for more than a century as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (now the Community of Christ), which now has about 250,000 members.  The Book of Mormon brought Smith regional notoriety and opposition from those who remembered the 1826 Chenango County trial.  Another brother, William, was unable to attract a sufficient following. He died on February 11, 2012 at 59 years of age.  The endowment resembled rites of freemasonry that Smith had observed two months earlier when he had been initiated "at sight" into the Nauvoo Masonic lodge. “[He] left a fame and name that cannot be slain. Early years. On the 100th anniversary of Joseph Smith Jr.’s birth, a 50-foot granite obelisk was raised on the site. , By early 1844, a rift developed between Smith and a half dozen of his closest associates. , On June 27, 1844, an armed mob with blackened faces stormed Carthage Jail where Joseph and Hyrum were being held.  The story begins with a family that leaves Jerusalem, just before the Babylonian captivity. His followers believed that Smith’s actions were directed by revelation. During the first half of the 20th century, some writers suggested that Smith might have suffered from epileptic seizures or from psychological disorders such as paranoid delusions or manic-depressive illness that might explain his visions and revelations. Joseph Smith body shape: Average.  Smith said that, although he had become concerned about the welfare of his soul, he was confused by the claims of competing religious denominations.  The practice of polygamy was kept secret from both non-Mormons and most members of the church during Smith's lifetime. When did Joseph Smith die?  Among Mormons, he is regarded as a prophet on par with Moses and Elijah.  Smith's sons Joseph III and David also had claims, but Joseph III was too young and David was yet unborn. Meanwhile Brigham Young, the president of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, rose to prominence when he organized the move of about 14,000 Mormon refugees to Illinois and eastern Iowa. He lived great, and he died great in the eyes of God and his people” .  Some of Smith's chosen successors, such as Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer, had left the church. As a teenager, he may have been sympathetic to Methodism.  Though Smith did not claim exclusive prophethood, an early revelation designated him as the only prophet allowed to issue commandments "as Moses".
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